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Travel Guide to Sulawesi

  • 11°C, Wind
  • Mon 12:19 am
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    Jessica Brown
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  • Always enjoyed my stay with Hilton Hotel and Resorts, top class room service and rooms have great outside views and luxury assessories. Thanks for great experience.

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General Information About Indonesia

Indonesia lies between latitudes 11°S and 6°N, and longitudes 95°E and 141°E. It consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited. These are scattered over both sides of the equator. The largest are Java, Sumatra, Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor. Indonesia shares maritime borders across narrow straits with Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Palau to the north, and with Australia to the south. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation's largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang. Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography, support the world's second highest level of biodiversity after Brazil. Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. The islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to the Asian mainland, and have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Forests cover approximately 60% of the country. In Sumatra and Kalimantan, these are predominantly of Asian species. However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture. Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku – having been long separated from the continental landmasses—have developed their own unique flora and fauna. Papua was part of the Australian landmass, and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species.

Sports Played in Indonesia

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About Basketball Game

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Indonesia Culture and History

Culture Indonesia has about 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural identities developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Textiles such as batik, ikat, ulos and songket are created across Indonesia in styles that vary by region. The Indonesian film industry'spopularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia, although it declined significantly in the early 1990s. Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year has steadily increased. Indonesia holds 6 items UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage

History

Pre-historical era

Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, popularly known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and as recently as 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago. In 2011 evidence was uncovered in neighbouring East Timor showing that 42,000 years ago these early settlers were catching and consuming large numbers of big deep sea fish such as tuna, and that they had the technology needed to make ocean crossings to reach Australia and other islands. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan. They arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE, and as they spread through the archipelago, pushed the indigenous Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the 1st century CE. Indonesia's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and China, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. In the mid first millennium A.D, Indonesian trader ships to Madagascar as well as eastern coast of Africa.

Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms era

Expansion of Srivijayan empire, started in Palembang in 7th century, expanding throughout Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Cambodia, and receded as Dharmasraya in the 13th century.
Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism arrived in Indonesia in the 4th and 5th century, as trade with India intensified under the southern Indian Pallava dynasty. This is evidenced in the Kutai, Tarumanagara, and Kantoli kingdoms of the period. From the 7th century to early 11th, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom become a hegemon in Southeast Asia and flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it. Srivijaya's main foreign interest was nurturing lucrative trade agreements with China which continued from the Tang dynasty to the Song dynasty. Srivijaya had religious, cultural and trade links with the Buddhist Pala Empire of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East. The necessity to maintain its trade monopoly had led the empire to launch naval military expeditions against rival ports in Southeast Asia and to absorb them into Srivijaya's sphere of influence. The port of Malayu in Jambi, Kota Kapur in Bangka island, Tarumanagara and the port of Sunda in West Java, Kalingga in Central Java, the port of Kedah and Chaiya in Malay peninsula are among the regional ports that were absorbed within Srivijayan sphere of influence. A series of Javan-Srivijaya raids on the ports of Champa and Cambodia was also part of its effort to maintain its monopoly in the region by sacking its rival ports. After the invasion by Rajendra Chola I the king of the Chola Empire from Koromandel, authority of Srivijaya over the islands of Sumatera and the Malay Peninsula weakened. Some time later came a new dynasty that took over the role of Sailendra Dynasty, called by the name of Mauli dynasty. Mauli dynasty of Malay kings that rules Dharmasraya kingdom, centred in Batanghari river system. In later period of the kingdom's capital shifted inland upstream of Batanghari to Dharmasraya and later moved further inland toPagaruyung. Between the 8th and 10th centuries, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of Indonesia. The founder of the Majapahit, Kertarajasa, was the son-in-law of the ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, also based in Java. After Singhasari drove Srivijaya out of Java in 1290, the rising power of Singhasari came to the attention of Kublai Khanin China and he sent emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanagara, ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, refused to pay tribute and the Khan sent a punitive expedition which arrived off the coast of Java in 1293. By that time, a rebel from Kediri, Jayakatwang, had killed Kertanagara. The Majapahit founder allied himself with the Mongols against Jayakatwang and, once the Singhasari kingdom was destroyed, turned and forced his Mongol allies to withdraw in confusion. After its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit power began to decline and was unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca. Dates for the end of the Majapahit kingdom range from 1478 to 1520. A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royal family moved east to the island of Bali at the end of Majapahit power.

Indonesian Nightlife

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Popular Bars in Indonesia

L’Open Café
17, Rue des Archives - 75004 Paris Tel. : +33 (0) 1 42 72 26 18
Bliss Kfé
30, Rue du Roi de Sicile - 75004 Paris Tel. : +33 (0) 1 42 78 49 36
L’Oiseau bariolé
16, Rue Sainte Croix Bretonnerie - 75004 Paris Tel. : +33 (0) 6 10 38 46 51
Le Cox
15, Rue des Archives - 75004 Paris Tel. : +33 (0) 1 42 72 26 18

Famous Clubs in Paris

Six-Seven
65-67, Rue Pierre Charron - 75008 Paris Tel. : +33 (0) 1 58 56 20 50
VIP room
76, Avenue des Champs-Elysées - 75008 Paris Tel. : +33 (0) 1 56 69 16 66
Le Baron
6, Avenue Marceau - 75008 Paris Tel. : +33 (0) 1 47 20 04 01
Le Latina Café
114, Avenue des Champs Elysées- 75008 Paris Tel. : +33 (0) 1 42 89 98 89

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bunaken island

Explore Manado 10 Jun 2018 - 31 Dec 9999

per person$0.00
EXPLORE MANADO Unveiling the highlights in the Northern Sulawesi and the splendour of nature, this 4-day journey takes you to
Toja traditional house

Explore Toraja 29 Jan 2019 - 31 Dec 9999

per person$290.00
TORAJA On the island of Sulawesi fare up in the mountain lays the small plateau, the home of the Toraja